Egypt Sustainability Issues

The critical environmental and sustainability issues of Egypt:

1. Education

Educational Systems are outdated and saturated with less information. Poor infrastructure is widespread with around 1 in 5 school buildings unfit for use. Egypt ranks 115th on the Human Development Index. Egypt’s public universities were paralyzed by more than 1,600 student protests, causing the government to deploy security forces on campuses.


2. Water Resources

Egypt’s fresh water is mainly derived from underground water. Underground water results in 95% of Egyptian’s desert land. In 1994, 28% of Egypt’s soils were damaged by significant levels of salinity. Nile River Delta is eroding, in some cases by as much as 10 meters a year, reducing available agricultural land. Agriculture uses about 85% of the available freshwater resources in Egypt and irrigation water quality is a critical concern. Most agricultural land is heavily irrigated and polluted by industrial effluent and untreated sewage, which are typically dumped into open drains.


3. Peace- Sinai Issue

Sinai 2018 is the code name of a large counter-terrorism campaign conducted by the Egyptian Armed Forces and the Interior Ministry. In February 2018, the army announced a new campaign against militants of the ISIS-affiliated group known as Sinai Province. Since then, the Egyptian army has destroyed hundreds of hectares of farmland and at least 3,000 homes and commercial buildings, together with 600 buildings destroyed in January 2018—the largest number of demolitions since the army officially began evicting Rafah city in 2014. A North Sinai mosque was attacked in November 2017 during Friday prayers. The attack killed 305 worshippers including 27 children. 


4. Unemployment

In 2018, the unemployment rate in Egypt was at approximately 11.44 percent. The report said 32.5% of Egyptians lived below the poverty line in 2018, up from 27.8% in 2015 and 16.7% in 2000. It said 6.2% of Egyptians live in extreme poverty. It set the poverty line at around $1.45 per day and the extreme poverty line at less than a dollar a day.


5. Health

Studies have suggested that about 19 million Egyptians are obese, accounting for about 35 percent of the adult population. In addition, about 3.6 million Egyptian children are obese, accounting for 10 percent of the country’s children. Chronic disease screenings also indicate high numbers of obesity-related disease including 5.3 million diabetes patients and another 3.6 million hypertension patients. Egypt is also struggling with high rates of Hepatitis C infection.