Southern Europe is the southern region of the European continent. Most definitions of Southern Europe, also known as Mediterranean Europe, include Italy, Malta, Greece, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania, Slovenia, Spain, East Thrace of European Turkey and Cyprus. Portugal, Serbia, North Macedonia, Andorra, San Marino and Vatican City are also often included despite not having a coast in the Mediterranean.
Geographically, Southern Europe is the southern half of the landmass of Europe. This definition is relative, although largely based on history, culture, climate, and flora which is shared across the region.
Southern Europe’s most emblematic climate is that of the Mediterranean climate, which has become a typically known characteristic of the area, which is due to the large subtropical semi-permanent centre of high atmospheric pressure found, not in the Mediterranean itself, but in the Atlantic Ocean, the Azores High.Those areas of Mediterranean climate present similar vegetations and landscapes throughout, including dry hills, small plains, pine forests and olive trees.
Cooler climates can be found in certain parts of Southern European countries, for example within the mountain ranges of Spain and Italy. Additionally, the north coast of Spain experiences a wetter Atlantic climate.